Students will be instructed to complete a few tasks and A student covalent bonding answers on their lab sheets. In macroscopic samples of sodium chloride, there are billions and billions of sodium and chloride ions, although there is always the same number of cations and anions. At this point my students have been informed that covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between nonmetals, but do not understand why, or how, sharing of electrons is different from the transfer of electrons.
These elements—helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon—do not form compounds very easily, which suggests that they are especially stable as lone atoms. You can read more about how I set up the station labs here. These are called nonbonding pairs or lone pairs of electrons.
By each contributing one electron, they make the following molecule: However, a 4 e- gain or loss is too much charge for one atom to easily hold and typically becomes unstable, unless the atom is very large!
The students currently enrolled in my Biology College Prep class have already been introduced to this content in their 8th grade Physical Science classes, so I use this lesson as a review of their extensive study last year.
Have students try to explain Ionic Bonding.
In this situation neither hydrogen can reach the preferred duet state. These shared electrons simultaneously occupy the outermost shell of both atoms.
In each group, have students discuss and compare their notes with each member of the group. Students will identify the diagrams as either a covalent bond or ionic bond.
Notice column 4, it is right in the middle and is left blank. Of note, ionic bonds usually occur between a metal and a nonmetal. The octet rule has been satisfied. This is followed by showing oxygen bonding to another oxygen with a double bond with two bonding pairs of electrons.
The Lewis diagram of two hydrogen atoms sharing electrons looks like this: It is currently being offered at a reduced price as it is incomplete; however, it will increase in price as the other components are added.
The beginning of the Powerpoint starts with a brief review of ionic bonding, but quickly gets into what a covalent bond is. Any unpaired electrons have the potential to participate in the chemical bond.
Note that the sodium ion now has an outer electron shell that has eight electrons, fulfilling the octet rule. Bonding With Your Students 1 minutes The video clip provides an introduction and rationale for this lesson reviewing types of chemical bonds.
In cases where an atom has three or fewer valence electrons, the atom may lose those valence electrons quite easily until what remains is an octet in the next lower shell.
Fluorine is another element whose atoms bond together in pairs to form diatomic two-atom molecules. I discuss my philosophy about homework further in my lesson reflection.
Once there are four electrons filled in, continue to pair up the electrons. The circles show that each fluorine atom has eight electrons around it.
Rather than being shared, they are considered to belong to a single atom. The Octet Rule can be used to help you predict how many electrons an element must gain or lose to achieve an electron configuration similar to the Noble Gases. Students who can answer open-ended questions about the lab truly understand the concepts that are being taught.
Explain to students they will be taking notes during the video. Note that the chloride ion has now filled its outer shell and contains eight electrons, satisfying the octet rule.
Charged atoms are called ions. Fill in the blank: Students will be demonstrating the bonds of H2O and NaCl. Larger molecules are constructed in a similar fashion, with some atoms participating in more than one covalent bond. In representing the final formula, the dots are omitted.
Charges of Monoatomic Ions. Hands-on testing Before doing any hands-on testing, be sure to have your students put on appropriate personal protective equipment PPEincluding goggles, apron, and gloves.Draw a diagram: Covalent bonds are shown in Lewis diagrams.
In a Lewis diagram, dots In a Lewis diagram, dots represent unshared valence electrons and dashes represent pairs of shared electrons. Summary. In this simulation, students investigate both ionic and covalent bonding.
Students will have the opportunity to interact with many possible combinations of atoms and will be tasked with determining the type of bond and the. Covalent Bonds. Choose a substance, and then move electrons between atoms to form covalent bonds and build molecules. Observe the orbits of shared electrons in single, double, and triple covalent bonds.
Compare the completed molecules to the corresponding Lewis diagrams. Student Work - Types of Bonds Comparison - After analyzing the student responses, most of the students are able to explain the movement of electrons in ionic (give up or receive) and covalent (share) bonds, but it seems many students missed the rationale as to why certain elements form which type of bond.
A point of emphasis should be that ionic. Choose a substance, and then move electrons between atoms to form covalent bonds and build molecules. Observe the orbits of shared electrons in single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Compare the completed molecules to.
Chapter 3 – Ionic and Covalent Bonding This content can also be downloaded as a PDF file. For the interactive PDF, adobe reader is required for full functionality. This text is published under creative commons licensing, for referencing and adaptation, please click here.
Sections: Two Types of Bonding Ions Electron Transfer Lewis Diagrams .Download